Ruined castle dating from 1215
In modern parlance, the English were brought in by the Kandyans to establish "human Rights"! King Panduwas Dev (Pandukabhaya, 4 century BCE) had divided the country into three provinces, viz., Phiti rata or Raja rata, north of the Mahaweli Ganga and Daduru Oya, Rohana or Ruhuna being south of the Mahaweli and extending up to Kalu ganga, while Maya rata extended from the Kalu Ganga to Deduru oya.
These kingdoms were governed by Yuvarajas (Viceroys) to whome power was delegated by the King.
The Jaffna Peninsula was finally recaptured in 1921 from Sinhalese rule by the Portuguese General Constantino de Sa de Noronha.
Although Denmark had signed a treaty with the King of Kandy for building a fort in Batticaloa, the Dutch overcame them.
This is further clarified by noting that eighteen countries are mentioned in early Tamil literature, clearly distinguishing "cinkalam" from "Tamlaak(h)am", viz., cimkaḷam, conaakam, cā vakam, cīṉam, tuḷuvam, kutakam, konkanam, kanna-tam, kollam, telin(g)kam, kalin(g)kam, vaṅkam, kaṅ- kam, makatam, kaṭāram, kavuṭam, koklam, tamilakam; சிங்களம், சோனகம், சாவகம், சீனம், துளுவம், குடகம், கொங் ;கணம், கன்னடம், கொல்லம், தெலிங்கம், கலிங்கம், ;வ ங்கம், கங்கம், மகதம், கடாரம், கவுடம், கோசலம், தமிழகம்.
The early Pali writings of Sri Lanka also mention similar names for kingdoms located in the subcontinent.
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The vicedroys were subject to the King of the whole Island who also was gradually recognized as the protector of Buddhism, and guardian of the tooth relic of the Buddha.With the rise of British power in the 18 to 19th century, the Dutch were replaced by the British as the colonial masters of the Dutch possessions, and finally the whole of Ceylon in 1815.The fall of the King of Kandy was due to intrigues among the ministers against a king who had become a harsh and suspicious ruler, as well as due to the actions of British envoys like O'Doyle who fanned the intrigues.The name Taprobana is attributed to Megasthenes in the 4th century BCE.Ptolemy's map used the name Taprobane, establishing that in the 1st-2nd century CE the country was known to the West as Taprobane.