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There are records of numerous other ancient civilizations on the Iranian Plateau before the emergence of Iranian peoples during the Early Iron Age.
The Early Bronze Age saw the rise of urbanization into organized city states and the invention of writing (the Uruk period) in the Near East.
Many are made from chlorite, a gray-green soft stone; others are in copper, bronze, terracotta, and even lapis lazuli.
Recent excavations at the sites have produced the world's earliest inscription which pre-dates Mesopotamian inscriptions.
In the first half of the first millennium BC, parts of what is now Iranian Azerbaijan were incorporated into Urartu.Iran, with its long history of early cultures and empires, had suffered particularly hard during the late Middle Ages and the early modern period.Many invasions of nomadic tribes, whose leaders became rulers in this country, affected it negatively.Iranian people gave rise to the Medes, the Achaemenid, Parthian, and Sasanian Empires of classical antiquity.Once a major empire, Iran has endured invasions too, by the Greeks, Arabs, Turks, and the Mongols.